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  • 김포출장맛사지▌예약금없는출장샵〓김포역삼 안마방{김포대구 아로마 마사지}☈﹛김포고환 마사지﹜➷김포남성전용마사지⊕김포홍대 안마방 위치ユ김포마사지 토렌토♚김포1인 마사지↛김포이진호 안마방

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    온라인카지노
    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    김포출장맛사지⇪24시출장샵⇙김포역삼 안마방{김포태국 마사지 종류}⇟﹛김포방이동 여관﹜ウ김포천안역 여관┤김포심장 마사지►김포광대 축소 마사지═김포안마방 지루╌김포연예인 안마방

    The governments of more than 190 nations 군포마사지 어플 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    김포출장맛사지╞예약♡김포역삼 안마방{김포동대구 마사지}➸﹛김포국 안마방﹜▒김포충주 마사지☌김포미금역 안마방↺김포테니스공 마사지♡김포fc2 오일 마사지✐김포금천구 마사지

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    김포출장맛사지ア24시출장샵┳김포역삼 안마방{김포마사지 야동 토렌트}❤﹛김포합정 마사지﹜☀김포군산 안마방υ김포포항 안마방⇪김포아쿠아 마사지 젤◆김포강원도 안마방◢김포강남 마사지

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 군산출장샵 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    김포출장맛사지☪출장부르는법◐김포역삼 안마방{김포진주 오피}♚﹛김포연수동 안마방﹜⇛김포대구 커플 동영상◐김포요괴 마사지╠ 김포산본 마사지 후기┥김포이천 안마방┌김포평택역 마사지

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 과천포항 타이마사지 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    김포출장맛사지⇦24시출장샵☪김포역삼 안마방{김포부평 마사지 샵}┌﹛김포수원 출장﹜⇗김포마사지 중독η김포성감대 마사지▦김포남양주 안마방↹김포중리동 안마방☠김포부산역 안마방

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 평택출장샵 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

    김포출장맛사지김포출장 만남 대행

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  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    김포출장맛사지✿24시출장샵⇊김포역삼 안마방{김포야탑 마사지}☎﹛김포안마방 몰카 tumblr﹜✕김포서양 마사지↸김포강릉 타이 마사지♣김포정준호 안마방◦김포라오스 마사지 2차╩김포마사지 수면실

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 정읍미아 안마방 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 전주출장안마 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    군산출장안마
    부안익산 안마방 목포출장안마 보성용인 안마방
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 전주출장샵 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    김포출장맛사지❈출장부르는법☣김포역삼 안마방{김포안마방 방구}♪ ﹛김포속초 모텔 추천﹜⇛김포여성전용 마사지♧김포홍방장 안마방タ김포인도 뉴델리 마사지☼김포오피스 걸〓김포부산 출장안마

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 해남천안 퇴폐 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    김포출장맛사지♐예약금없는출장샵↛김포역삼 안마방{김포근육 마사지}⇀﹛김포출장오피﹜☼김포응암동 마사지┐김포인천 마사지タ김포마송 여관×김포포항 아가씨┲김포대전 안마방

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 카지노사이트 .

    무주콜걸샵
    순창경찰 안마방 창원출장샵 보성마사지
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    김포출장맛사지❖출장부르는법┄김포역삼 안마방{김포강북 안마방}╗﹛김포동암 마사지﹜➵김포앙헬레스 마사지↺김포모유수유 마사지↔김포출장최고시▪김포휴게텔 안마방エ김포경찰 안마방

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 목포출장샵 .

    김포출장맛사지ν예약금없는출장샵┧김포역삼 안마방{김포방콕 마사지}♐﹛김포안마방 반말﹜▪김포온양 마사지ν김포nhdta 마사지↚김포안마방 첫경험£김포마사지 야동↠김포마사지 맛사지

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 천안출장샵 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 영광안마방 실사 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    김포출장맛사지♀ 예약금없는출장샵♡김포역삼 안마방{김포제천 안마방}↪﹛김포구미 모텔 추천﹜↽김포도쿄 안마방•김포포항 마사지 후기➴김포안마방 한국야동☷김포민락동 마사지♦김포진영 안마방

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    김포출장맛사지↺예약-김포역삼 안마방{김포손목 마사지}ヌ﹛김포마사지 torrent﹜▥김포tumblr 모텔↕김포인덕원 마사지⇪김포태릉입구역 안마방ノ김포고딩 안마방◁김포스타 안마방

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 김제유흥인 토렌트 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 광주출장안마 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. gvya.xyz .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 순창러시아 밤문화 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 원주출장샵 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    김포출장맛사지ト예약금없는출장샵ホ김포역삼 안마방{김포서울 조건 만남}⇌﹛김포청라 마사지﹜⇠김포대전 안마방 추천エ김포마사지 구인╌김포삼성역 안마방⇘김포여자 부르는 가격➨김포카톡 출장

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 광주출장샵 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 창원출장샵 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 부산출장안마 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    김포출장맛사지↓출장부르는법タ김포역삼 안마방{김포오피 투샷}♣﹛김포마사지 강좌﹜◎김포목 마사지⇪김포용인 마사지☻김포안마방 2:1☳김포평택 모텔 가격┰김포안마방 경험

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    광주부산 출장안마
    서울출장안마 철원video.fc2.com 마사지 창원출장안마
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    김포출장맛사지☻24시출장샵◦김포역삼 안마방{김포외국인출장만남}➛﹛김포마사지 초대﹜♫김포출장샵◐김포만짜이 마사지유김포엘림 마사지⇆김포부산역 모텔 가격♘김포얼굴 마사지 기계

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.김포출장맛사지김포와이프 마사지↜김포화성시 안마방✄﹛김포jav 마사지﹜김포안마방 러시아┍김포안마방 키스◑김포타이마사지 팁☢김포나무위키 안마방⇏대전출장샵24시출장샵김포광주 대딸방⇃김포김해 출장 마사지◎〈김포정선 사북 마사지〉김포게이 마사지➴김포페니스 마사지↳김포신촌 안마방▬김포세부 안마방✖김포출장맛사지청주베트남 마사지 후기김포남자 출장 마사지▫김포마사지나라☏﹝김포산남동 마사지﹞김포콜걸추천♨김포한물간 연예인 안마방↴김포타이 마사지 팁➳김포출장안마 가격◈김포성기 마사지﹄김포오류동 마사지┲〈김포20대 안마방〉김포성인 에이미☠김포마사지 텀블러↿김포출장업소U김포안마방 긴밤♬김포아프리카tv 마사지➨김포막탄 마사지的〈김포마사지 근육〉김포턱살 마사지✚김포타이마사지 팁 서비스☇김포여수 안마방▐김포부평 마사지⇊김포울산 삼산 안마방☃김포안마방 후기♗{김포이종찬 마사지}김포냥이 마사지▦김포포항 마사지 후기▣김포평택 모텔 가격↔김포파타야 마사지⇙예약영동타이 출장 마사지출장부르는법김포목동 마사지»김포안마방 홈런┟〖김포신림 안마방〗김포전완근 마사지✲김포인천 출장 마사지﹃김포송도 안마방♨김포대전 모텔 다방U김포출장맛사지김포출장맛사지카지노사이트김포체코 마사지 fc2김포출장 만남 보증금김포아줌마 마사지김포목동역 마사지김포출장맛사지김포은평구 마사지╣김포다리 마사지 기계↚{김포안마방 일베}김포김연아 안마방⇁김포불광 여관☻김포제주시 안마방☻김포안마방 아가씨✖창원예약금 없는 출장 샵

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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